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Thursday, April 10, 2008


Chief Corn Stalk [aka Wneypuechsika, Keightughquah -which signified a blade or stalk of maize; - - b about 1710 in Greenbrier County,Western PA d 11 Nov 1777
murdered by whites at Ft. Randolph, Point Pleasant WV buried near the fort on Point Pleasant, WV overlooking the junction of the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers. In 1840 his bones were removed to the grounds of the Mason County Court House where, in 1899, a monument was erected in Cornstalk’s memory. In the late 1950’s, a new court house was built in Point Pleasant and the chief’s remains (which consisted of three teeth and about 15 pieces of bone) were placed in an aluminum box and reinterred in a corner of the town’s Tu-Endie-Wei Park md

  • (1) Helizikinopo by 1730 -Shawnee [likely a Mekoche], b abt 1715 PA d aft 1756 OH sister of Big Snake
    ---children-- Chenusaw, Wolf, Walker, Newa, Aracoma (Baker), Greenbrier (Kennison), Cornstalk Jr, Mary (Swift-Adkins), Ellinipsico, Elizabeth (Petella), Esther (Sowards), Oceana-all Shawnee

  • (2) Ounaconoa Moytoy by 1735 1/2 Shawnee-Cherokee
    ---children-- Black Beard, Black Wolf, John Wolf, Peter Cornstalk-all 3/4 th Shawnee-Cherokee,

  • (3) Julia adopted abt 1741 adopted Scot-Mulatto
    ---children-- Sun Fish & Elijah Cornstalk, Absalom, Abraham & Michael Ailstock-all 1/2 Shawnee-Black-Scot Metis,
    (4) Katherine Vanderpool Sharpe adopted-white 1763 b 1725 NY d 1806 OH - former wife of John Sharpe-white, widow of Fredrick adopted 1763 returned to whites 1765, wife of Cornstalk 1763, mother with Fredrick was Elizabeth md Cornstalk Jr.

  • (5) other wives possible, possible unknown children
    --- Cornstalk is said to have been born in western Pennsylvania at least by 1720, but some say 1708 or 1710, and moved with his family when he was about 10 to Ohio

  • ---Major Chalakatha/Mekoche chief by 1749, with Creeks in AL for a short time in 1755 & again for a short time in 1758, French-Indian War, Braddock, led raiding New-Shenandoah River valleys 1755, led raiding Ohio-New River valleys 1758, Pontiac War, lead chief of Shawnee at Bushy Run, led raiding New-Greenbrier-Jackson River valleys 1763, led raiding Ohio-Little Kanawha-Big Sandy-Kanawha-New River valleys 1772, lead chief Point Pleasant 1774, Chief of 20 tribe Northern Confederacy about 1755-77, associated with John Swift silver-mines about 1755-69, Council Ft. Pitt Nov. 1753, June 1762, negotiated Treaty 1757 with Col. Thomas Lewis & Col. William Preston at mouth of Big Sandy River, Council Bouquet Oct. 1764, hostage of Col. Bouquet winter 1764-65, traveled to Shawnee in NC-NY-IL-KY-IN-PA-TN enlisting support 1774, Treaty 1765, Treaty Camp Charlotte 1774

  • ----1750s, he fought with the French against the British during the French and Indian War.

  • --- 1763 he led an expedition of warriors against white settlements along Muddy Creek in Greenbrier County in what is now West Virginia. Over the next decade, he continued to lead the resistance to white encroachment into the Ohio River Valley.

  • --- In the early 1770s, Chief Cornstalk became the leader of a confederacy of Indian tribes living in Ohio, including the Shawnee, Wyandots, Delawares, and Mingos.

  • --- Oct. 10, 1774, he led a large war party against troops from Virginia. The battle took place at **Point Pleasant, near the juncture of the Ohio and Kanawha rivers in present-day West Virginia. Both sides suffered heavy losses, and Chief Cornstalk later signed a peace treaty with Virginia governor Lord Dunmore.

  • The Battle of Point Pleasant was considered a turning point in the war against the Indians and a precursor of the American Revolutionary War. During the battle, one-half of General Lewis' commissioned officers, including his brother, Colonel Charles Lewis, were killed, as were 75 of his non-commissioned soldiers. Another 140 soldiers were wounded. The actual number of Indians engaged or killed in the battle is not known, but included warriors from the Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo, Wyandotte and Cayuga tribes, lead by their respective chiefs and by Cornstalk, Sachem of the Shawnees and King of the North Confederacy. The remaining Indians fled into Ohio with Lewis' men in pursuit. Now on the defensive, the Indians later agreed to a peace treaty, ending what had become known as Lord Dunmore's War (John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, was Governor of Virginia at the time). General Lewis died in 1781 from a fever.

  • --- During the American Revolution the British tried to build a coalition of Indians to fight against the colonists. Chief Cornstalk alone refused to join, although many members of his tribe opposed him. Chief Cornstalk, however, had come to believe that his people's survival depended on their friendly relations with the Virginians. In the spring of 1777, he visited the garrison at Point Pleasant with a small contingent of Indians, and he informed the colonials of the coalition that was forming. While the Virginians waited for reinforcements, the Indians were held as hostages. Following the killing of a white man outside the fort by other Indians, Chief Cornstalk and his men (including his son, Elinipsico) were murdered by the soldiers. Chief Cornstalk was admired, even by his enemies, as a fine orator and courageous warrior.

  • CORNSTALK MURDER From the VIRGINIA GAZETTE 3 April 1778 By HIS Excellency PATRICK HENRY Governor, or Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth of VIRGINIA

    WHEREAS a most barbarous murder was on the tenth day of November last committed by a number of persons belonging to a detachment of the militia of this state an Indian chief called CORNSTALK, his son, and two other Indians at Fort Randolph on the Ohio, although the said Indians had been convicted of no hostile act or purpose, and were at that time under the pl ghted (sic) protection of the garrison of the place, whereby a deep wound has been given to the honor and faith of this country, the laws of the state have been most flagrantly violated, and the vengeance of a cruel enemy provoked on the innocent inhabitants of the western frontiers, as well as a dangerous example given to licentious and bloodthirsty men wantonly to involve their country in the horrours of a savage war; and whereas it appears from sundry depositions transmitted to me that James Hall of the county of Rockbridqe, and Malcolm McCown of Augusta, Adam Barnes of Greenbrier, William Roane of Rockbridge and Hugh Galbreath of Rockbridge were deeply concerned in promoting and perpetrating the said outrage, I do by and with the advice of the Council of State issue this my proclamation strictly requiring the citizens of this commonwealth, more especially all officers civil and military, to use the most vigorous exertions to bring these seperate offenders to the punishment due their guilt. And as an encouragement thereto, as well as a proof of the public abhorrence of such detestable crimes, I do offer to such person or persons as shall secure any of the offenders so that they be brought to justice the following rewards that is for James Hall 200 dollars, for Malcolm McCown 150 dollars, for Adam Barnes, William Roane and Hugh Galbreath 100 dollars each.
    Given under my hand at the Council Chamber in the city of Williamsburg this 27th day of March in the second year of the commonwealth, Annogue Dom 1778

    --- The first Rockbridge Order Book shows in April 1778, Court was held for examination of Captain James Hall on suspicion of felony, concerning the murder of the "Cornstalk" Indian, his son Ellinipsico, Redhawk, and another Indian chief.
    -James Hall appeared, but no witnesses for the Commonwealth appeared.
    -James Hall was placed on trial and acquitted.
    -Hugh Galbraith, Malcolm McCown, and William Rowan were each tried on the same charges and acquitted.
    -These were the first trials held in Rockbridge County, but not the first Court.
    -The first Court held in Rockbridge was on April 7th. Captain James Hall's trial began on April 18th, and he was acquitted on April 28th of the same year.
    • 1 Chenusaw CORNSTALK -Shawnee, b abt 1730-died aft 1778
      --- son of Helizikinopo and Cornstalk
      --- French/Indian War, Braddock, raiding New-Shenandoah River valleys 1755, raiding Ohio-New River valleys 1758, Pontiac War, Bushy Run, raiding New-Jackson-Greenbrier River valleys 1763, raiding Little Kanawha-Big Sandy-Ohio-New River valleys 1772, Point Pleasant 1774/78, captive of Virginians 1775-76
    • 2 Wolf CORNSTALK aka Piaserka (the Wolf)
      son of Helizikinopo and Cornstalk
    • 3 Black Beard CORNSTALK b abt 1735 Chota, City Of Refuge, Cherokee Nation. d 1802 in Shawnee Nation, Ohio. md Katee Carpenter in 1758 in Running Water Village, Tenn b 1737 in Overhills, Great Tellico, Tenn d 1806 in Shawnee Nation, Ohio dau of Killaque /Killaqua CARPENTER 1/2 Shawnee-Cherokee son of White Owl Raven-Shawnee & Nancy Moytoy -Cherokee
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